Global Agreement To Reduce Release Of Ods Is
Many aerosol propellents contained CFCs before international agreements restricted their use. Image © Scott Witt 2012 marked the 25th anniversary of the signing of the Montreal Protocol. As a result, the Montreal Protocol Community organized a series of national, regional and international celebrations to showcase the considerable success it has had so far and to review future work.  Among its achievements, the Montreal Protocol was the first international treaty to meet a global environmental regulatory challenge; the first, which takes up the “precautionary principle” in its development for science-based policy-making; The first treaty, in which independent experts in atmospheric, environmental, chemical technology and economics reported directly to the parties, without treatment or censorship, under the standards of professionalism, mutual verification and respect; the first, which provides for national differences in accountability and financial capacity, in response to the creation of a multilateral technology transfer fund; The first MEA, which imposes strict reporting, trade and chemical requirements for both developed and developing countries; and the first treaty, with a financial mechanism, democratically managed by an executive council also representing industrialized and developing countries.  The ozone layer filters harmful ultraviolet radiation associated with an increased prevalence of skin and cataract cancers, reduced agricultural productivity and disturbances in marine ecosystems. The United States ratified the Montreal Protocol in 1988 and added four subsequent amendments. The United States has been at the forefront of the protocol throughout its existence and has taken strong national measures to stop the production and consumption of SDOs such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. With the full implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that Americans born between 1890 and 2100 should avoid 443 million cases of skin cancer, about 2.3 million deaths from skin cancer and more than 63 million cases of cataracts, with even greater benefits worldwide.